A laboratory apparatus, used to amplify segments of DNA via the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) process. The device has a thermal block with holes where tubes holding the PCR mixtures can be inserted. The cycler then raises and lowers the temperature of the block in discrete, preprogrammed steps.
The process by which enzymes use the genetic information on a strand of DNA to create a complementary strand of messenger RNA.
Molecules that carry amino acids during the process of protein synthesis during translation.
The process of transferring DNA from a donor to a recipient cell. Scientists use this process to introduce recombinant DNA to bacteria, yeast and mammalian cell lines.
A term describing an organism containing genetic material from a source other than its parents.
The process that converts an mRNA sequence into a string of amino acids that form a protein. Translation follows transcription (see transcription).